Using the Linux Ls Command to See Linux File "Patterns" – Linux Commands Training Quick Tips

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The [pattern] Part of a Linux Command

The Linux [pattern] (aka Linux shell pattern) part of a Linux command is a combination of letters and wildcard characters that are used with Linux commands to view information about Linux directories and files.

The Linux [pattern] of a Linux command does not work the same with all commands.

Linux ls Command Examples Showing Linux Command Patterns for Linux Files and Directories

The Linux commands examples that are shown below will help you to understand how a "file (or directory) matching pattern" can be used with a Linux command.

The Linux commands below will work in most Linux distributions, however, some of the Linux ls commands below may not show any Linux files in the output, depending on your Linux distribution.

The [pattern] component of a command is used to represent a file matching "pattern". It can be one or more letters, numbers or other characters and may include the * (asterisk) and? (Question mark) wildcard characters.

A [pattern] can be the name of an item (directory or file) or part of the name of an item (plus wildcard characters).

A [path] to a directory can precede a [pattern] (as shown in the second Linux command example shown below).

When a [path] is not used with a command, the command will typically display output based on the files in the current directory (as shown in the first Linux command example below).

The Linux ls command below uses the pattern of * (a single asterisk) to show all files in the current directory (and if you're working as a "regular" user and you're in your home directory, there may not be any files or directories that appear).

    $ Ls -l *

The ls command below uses the path and pattern of "/ etc / hos *" to show all files in the etc directory that begin with "hos". The [path] is / etc and the [pattern] is "hos *" (which uses the * wildcard character in the pattern).

    $ Ls -l / etc / host *

The suffix (aka filename extension, extension) in the name of an item is the far right. (Dot) and characters at the right of the. (Dot).

For example, in the directory named rc.d, the ".d" is the suffix of the directory and in the file named speedbar.gz, the ".gz" is the suffix of the file.

In the Linux ls command example below, the path and pattern is "/etc/*.cfg" and path is "/ etc" and the pattern is "* .cfg". This Linux command shows a listing of all files that end in ".cfg" in the etc directory, which is below the root directory.

    $ Ls -l /etc/*.cfg

In the ls command example below, the? wildcard character is used to represent any single character in the pattern of "host?" to show only files with a single character at the right of "host".

    $ Ls -l / etc / host?

The Linux concepts and commands discussed above apply to Red Hat, Debian, Slackware, Ubuntu, Fedora, SUSE and openSUSE Linux – and also ALL Linux distributions.

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Source by Clyde E. Boom

How to Choose the Right Linux VPS Plan

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Linux VPS plans are an excellent choice for website owners or administrators who wish to benefit from the flexibility and infrastructure of private servers, but the cost effectiveness of shared hosting. A profitable combination between shared hosting and dedicated servers, Linux VPS hosting allow users to run all popular distributions, from Ubuntu and CentOS to Fedora and Debian. Since virtual private servers have become such a popular choice these days, there are now plenty of providers available and countless possible plans for users to select from, which is why it is important to research your options properly before committing to a plan, as well as to a certain provider. Fortunately, the Internet comes as a great help, as there are numerous resources available on the subject and you can read invaluable information with regard to Linux virtual private servers online. An informed decision is the best decision, but there are also particular factors that need to be taken into account when choosing your hosting plan.

No matter how promising an ad or deal may appear, before choosing or subscribing to a Linux VPS hosting plan from any provider, you need to accurately assess your needs. If you are running a static website, then your memory needs and storage use should not be as high as if you were running, let's say, a database driven website, in which case you should also consider a higher value of premium traffic. There are also different packages and plans for WordPress blogs and Magento systems, in accordance to particular necessities of this type of websites, so if you have this kind of site look for providers that offer special packaging for it. As far as RAM memory goes, you will be able to find virtual private servers hosting plans that vary from 256MB to 8192MB, so there is no lack of alternatives. You just need, as mentioned above, to assess your requirements and needs accurately, in order to make the most suitable choice. The rraffic amount also varies significantly and you will be able to find plans that offer 250GB of premium traffic and others that give you 4TB of premium traffic.

Apart from the type of website you are running and your traffic needs, another factor that you should take into consideration when choosing the right Linux VPS hosting plan is value for money. Since there now are so many providers that offer this service, the competition between them is fierce and with a thorough research, you will be able to find a reasonable offer for what you need. Truthfully, you might come across attractive packages that provide great storage space, high amounts of premium traffic, proper CPU power and excellent RAM size, but the asking price may be way above the market value or simply above what you can afford. Take your time and compare providers and plans as well and you will certainly find a hosting plan that gives you best value for money.

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Source by Groshan Fabiola

Linux Fdisk, Parted and Disk Druid Hard Disk Partitioning in Red Hat Linux – Linux Commands Training

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Using the Linux fdisk and parted Commands / Utilities

The main Linux partitioning utility is fdisk, which is run with the fdisk command. Virtually every Linux distribution includes fdisk command / utility.

Some Linux distributions also include a utility called "parted" (GNU Parted – partition editor). And the parted utility is run by simply typing running the parted command.

For basic Linux partitioning tasks, use the fdisk command / utility.

However, to do more advanced Linux partitioning tasks, like resizing a partition or copying a partition, use the parted utility.

If you run the Linux parted command and this utility does not start, you can download the parted program and install it for your Linux distribution.

Some Linux distributions also use other partitioning utilities, particularly during their (own) installation routines.

The "Disk Druid" Hard Disk Partitioning GUI Utility Used By the Red Hat and Fedora

The installation routine of Red Hat (and Fedora Linux) allows you to use a partitioning tool called Disk Druid to partition your hard disk (s).

Disk Druid is actually a GUI interface (front end) for the parted utility. When you do a task with Disk Druid, such as create a partition, the parted utility is actually used "in the background" to accomplish the partitioning task.

Linux Commands Training Tips: Red Hat Linux is very expensive and Fedora is Free! Red Hat sponsors the creation of Fedora as a "test bed" for features to be added to Red Hat Linux.

So, download Fedora or have it mailed to you very inexpensively – if you specifically need to learn how to use Red Hat.
From a "learning Linux for System Administration perspective", the Red Hat Linux and Fedora Linux distributions are virtually identical.

The options available on the "Disk Setup" screen (of Disk Druid in the Red Hat installation routine) do not currently utilize all of the capabilities of the parted utility.

For example, the parted utility can be run at the Linux command line (by simply typing in parted and pressing Enter) to resize (increase or decrease) the size of a Linux partition and you can not do this with Disk Druid (from within the Red hat installation routine).

The Linux hard disk partitioning concepts and commands covered here apply to: Red Hat Linux and Fedora Linux for fdisk, parted and Disk Druid – and also apply to Ubuntu, Slackware, Debian and other Linux distributions for fdisk and parted.

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Source by Clyde E. Boom