The Speed ​​of CSLA Vs Open Source Alternatives


Standing for Component-based Scalable Logical Architecture, CSLA.NET is a software development framework designed to manage the cost of building and maintaining applications. By focusing on object-based design, CSLA gives all of its created business objects full functionality with all.NET platforms. CSLA is widely preferred because of its versatility and detailed documentation. The great barriers to successful CSLA implementation stand with the challenging learning curve and its complexity; these factors lead some to consider other options.

Businesses gravitate toward CSLA because of its ease of use with other critical programs and platforms. The latest incarnation of CSLA.NET, version 4.3, functions with Microsoft.NET 4.0, Visual Studio 2010, and Silverlight 5. As demand continues to increase for strong mobile applications, CSLA 4.3 also supports mobile devices, including Linux, Android, and Mac OSX.

Utility aside, some critics argue that CSLA's learning curve makes it unsuitable for some business needs. In theory, small businesses enjoy neither the time nor the budget necessary to learn the program or hire experts. CSLA's sole documentation comes in the form of creator Rockford Lhotka's books, and while they are not prohibitively expensive, some may balk at the proposition of learning a software development framework from a book. The alternative would be to seek a mentor in a classroom environment, but the cost – and perhaps more significantly, the time – involved could form a barrier to entry. Even with training, businesses will need least one person with expert knowledge of things like serialization, generics, and programming using abstract classes. Though no software development framework is "easy" to learn, other open-source alternatives may provide a simpler solution. Likewise, the belief in CSLA's "feature bloat" usually comes from those with a specific need as opposed to CSLA's broad applications. For a fledgling business with a small project, CSLA's powerful capabilities could become unnecessary complications.

Other users cite frustration with CSLA's reliance on reflection over interface method implementation. CSLA's DataPortal uses reflection to identify an object's data save and retrieve behavior, which can lead to problems when debugging code. Specifically, reflection will negate compile time during DataPortal's runtime, increasing the threat of deploying buggy code. Furthermore, reflection's detractors claim it is slow, especially when compared to static code execution.

Lhotka Developed the primordial version of CSLA.NET in 1998, and its long history of refinement Currently has afforded it the ImageChef of the "alpha and omega" of open-source software development frameworks. To some, its over-arching capabilities will require too intricate knowledge for efficient use because of budget and time constraints. Those without the expertise or finances to take full advantage of CSLA.NET's offerings should consider a more narrowly-focused open-source alternative. For enterprises who have the means to take full advantage, however, it remains one of the market's top choices for open-source.NET development frameworks.


Source by Chandra Heitzman

What Is a Legacy Computer System?


A legacy computer system is one that is outdated either in terms of hardware or software. At the time of writing, any computer running a version of Windows below Windows 7 is usually considered to be a legacy system, because this is the latest version currently available. (This also applies to computers running earlier versions of any other operating system, such as Linux)

Unlike a lot of other items, which tend to last for a long time, computers seem to go out of date extremely quickly, which can cause problems if equipment is not updated where necessary, especially within businesses.

This is because of a phenomenon known as Moore's Law, which is the prediction that every 18 months or so, computer capability doubles.

For example, if the most advanced specification available is 1GB Ram with a 2Ghz processor one year, it would be double that value after 18 months.

I have found over the years that there are both advantages and disadvantages to using legacy systems.

One of the advantages is that some older programs will only run on older computer systems, such as some of the early games produced by various companies.

Another advantage of these systems is that, because they are so out of date, they are often cheap to obtain, and can therefore be ideal for anyone who has never used a computer before, or who only needs it for basic functions, for example word processing.

Also, although legacy systems are older, they are also normally more stable. This is because update patches are usually released once a month from when the operating system is released to around 5 years later. (This only applies to Windows operating systems)

However, using one of these systems can often mean you get left behind rather quickly if you want to run any newer games and software or use any newer hardware, such as printers or scanners, which are not always backward-compatible with older systems.

This is mainly because as hardware capabilities increase, so do the demands of any software that is created, because developers always aim to take full advantage of new technology wherever they can, to enhance the user experience.

Overall, I would recommend that you consider what purpose you need a computer system for when choosing whether to use a new computer or an older system. In other words, for reliability, choose an older system and for higher performance levels, choose a newer system.


Source by John A Courtenay

Where Microsoft Is Excel Used?


Whether you work at an accounting firm, a marketing company, an auto dealership, a school attendance office, a manufacturing plant's human resources department, or an office associated with city, county, state or federal government, chances are, you'll be called upon to use and learn Excel.

Just about every workplace has a demand for Excel, the computing world's most commonly used software program for comparative data analysis. Excel has been available in various incarnations for more than a decade. Each subsequent release takes the program to new territory.

Popularly known as the best spreadsheet program on the market, Excel is powerful, easy to use, and remarkably efficient. Excel is highly interactive. Its spreadsheet cells are arranged in a collection of rows and columns, each of which can hold a number, a text string, or a formula that performs a function, such as calculation. It's easy to copy and move cells as well as modify formulas. The spreadsheet is displayed on the computer screen in a scrollable window that allows the document to be as deep or as wide as required.

Working for a major newspaper in Northern California, I was one of several reporters involved in the annual evaluation of our county's economy. The job involved collecting data that would be punched into Excel spreadsheets that ultimately ranked information according to the category of statistics being reviewed.

The beauty of Excel, from the standpoint of newspaper research projects, is that you can use formulas to recalculate results by changing any of the cells they use. With this model, you can use the same spreadsheet data to achieve various results by simply defining and changing formulas as desired. It is this feature that makes Excel so useful in so many different arenas.

With a click of the mouse, we reporters were able to get answers to a wide variety of questions. Which employers had the greatest number of workers? Which ones had the highest amount of gross annual receipts? Which ones appeared to be growing and which ones had declining sales? What was the volume of real estate loans and had there been a decline or increase from the previous year?

We looked at local and national retail, services, financial institutions, government entities, agriculture, the wine industry, tourism and hospitality, manufacturing, residential and commercial real estate, everything imaginable.

Excel allowed us to examine ratios, percentages, and anything else we wanted to scrutinize. Finally, we were able to use Excel to compare the results to data from previous years.

Since reporters tend to be former English majors, most of those who worked on this annual project were more familiar with Microsoft Word than any other software program. Therefore, most were required to undergo Excel training . For some, learning Excel was easier than for others. A few relied on guides such as Microsoft Excel Bible. Underwent an Reporters Some Excel tutorial The while others learned by vBulletin® doing.

Not only were the Excel spreadsheets crucial to the research, the format of each was published in the newspaper. Here is where some additional Excel functions came into play. Editors were able to make the spreadsheets more visually appealing by using colors and shading, borders and lines, and other features that made the spreadsheets easy for readers to decipher.

Wearing another of my several hats in the newsroom, I often wrote articles concerning the local job market. I found proficiency in Excel was a requirement for a wide variety of employment positions and that area recruiting firms offered their clients opportunities to take free or low-cost Excel tutorials in preparation for the workplace. Most employers expect job candidates to already know the software that the work will require and do not want to have to train new hires.

Do not kid yourself. If you're seeking any kind of office work, you'll need to know not only Microsoft Word but also Excel.

Excel and Microsoft are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation , registered in the US and other countries.


Source by Sheri Graves

Alternative Operating Systems for Mobile Devices


Undoubtedly, Android has a greater advantage over iOS in terms of extending the functionality of mobile devices. Android has a host of applications that add more features to what the phone of tablet can do by default. Moreover, the installation of mobile apps provides third-party providers easy access to users when delivering their services. For instance, feed apps provide daily updates in real-time to users who read the news and weather reports using their mobile device. However, Android and Apple's proprietary operating system are not the only firmware available to users.

Ubuntu for Android Phones and Tablets

The default Ice Cream Sandwich or Jelly Bean operating system in Android phones was developed from a Linux-based architecture. Although they perform well according to the hardware's specifications, users who prefer an operating system similar to the one they have in their desktop computers or laptops can get Ubuntu for mobile use. Versions 12.x or higher of this Linux distro have been re-engineered to function with touch screens and run efficiently on portable electronic devices.

Ubuntu for Android works effectively on multi-core high-end phones and tablets. Users can open multiple tabs in browsers and open several applications at the same time. Plus, the tablet or smartphone can handle two workspaces together, too, just like with a desktop computer. Through over-the-air updates, the firmware gets upgraded with the latest version and allows more applications to work efficiently on its system. The software comes with default applications, such as the Ubuntu Music Player, Chromium Web browser, Google Calendar, Thunderbird E-mail client, Google Docs, VLC Player, Ubuntu Photo Gallery, PiTiVi, Gwibber and Android dialer.

Symbian Belle for Nokia Smartphones

Nokia has been a leader in the mobile industry. Most phone users probably started with a Nokia than any other brand. However, the advancements in mobile technology have shifted user preferences towards phones with operating systems that developers can create applications for quickly. This is why Android took the lead from iOS within a few years. This also means that Nokia must also change along with the trends.

In response, the company has developed Nokia Belle, which is the newest firmware update for their smartphones that operate on Symbian S60, which include Nokia N8, Nokia C7, Nokia C6-01, Nokia E7, Nokia X7, Nokia E6, and Nokia 500 . Owners of these units may upgrade to Belle through the desktop suite or through their network provider. After the update, the new OS allows up to six home screens that can be customized with dynamic and live widgets. It has a pull-down taskbar and improved apps for navigation, image editing, and web browsing. On the whole, the new user interface has similar features as an Android phone.


Source by Michael Birsch

How to Play Mexican Poker


These days, playing the game of poker has become a trend. Every second person is seen playing the game and there is no harm in it as well. If you are looking out for one of the best types of poker games then you can play Mexican Poker. This game is best suitable for all those individuals who want to play poker in a large group. Moreover, the rules of the game are highly simple and you can enjoy playing it for long without troubling yourself at all.

Here are mentioned the steps that you can follow in order to play Mexican Poker with your friends and enjoy to the maximum extent possible.

  1. Firstly, the players should know that minimum four players are required for playing this version of poker card game. In addition, you need four decks of playing cards for Mexican Poker. If you want to add more people to the group, you need to add more decks of cards as well. A simple rule to remember is to add one deck of cards for every two players.
  2. Now you need to shuffle the four decks of cards together and deal the cards to the players sitting around the table. The numbers of cards to be dealt depends on the hand that you would be playing. After you are done with dealing cards, the undistributed cards can be placed in the center of the table. You should remove the top card from the pile and place it by its side facing up. This would be the pile to keep discarded cards.
  3. The game begins with the player sitting left to the dealer. The player has to make a set of hands depending on the kind of game you are dealing with. The player can pick a card either from undistributed pile or discard pile and tries to make a set. Afterwards, the player can discard it.
  4. Once the required set has been discarded by a player he can begin with laying down cards that any of the players has put down. The session of laying down the cards continue until one of the players is not left with any cards.
  5. After this point the points are given to the cards each player is left with in his hand. 20 points are given for J, Q, K and aces. Card number 10 is of 10 points. 5 points are given to cards with numbers 3 to 9. 40 points are given to card number 2.
  6. After summing up the points, the player with least point value is the winner.


Source by Pankaj Diya Gupta

What is the Difference Between OMR Readers and OMR Software?


So you finally figured you need a way to automatically mark exams or surveys? You may have already read about OMR (short for Optical Mark Recognition or Optical Mark Reading) which is the process of computerized imaging equipment detecting marks made on paper forms used.

OMR is not a new technology, it has become widely used since the 1960s. The 1990s introduced a lot of changes in both cost of and features associated with OMR. Notably, the 90's saw the adoption of OMR software over the traditional OMR reader. While they both achieve the same basic purpose, OMR reader solutions are completely different from OMR software / scanner solutions. You should be well informed of what the differences are before making a decision to purchase one or the other.

OMR Readers

Once an extremely expensive machine, the OMR reader has become much cheaper over the years and is now quite affordable for most organizations. The most important point for people to remember with OMR readers is that they are NOT image scanners. OMR readers consist of a number of LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes), often between 40-50 of them which shine reflected beams of light toward forms passed through them at a timed speed. The reflection of this light helps sensors in the OMR reader determine if marks have been placed in the form's "bubbles". Most OMR readers read forms that are professionally printed and contain "timing tracks" that assist the reader in determining which row of bubbles the machine is reading. OMR readers can also have adaptors for barcode detection to help assist in the automation process of matching form responses to their responder.


  • OMR readers can have the ability to have separate hoppers for automatically rejected forms.
  • You can pack more bubbles into an OMR reader form than one read by OMR software as most OMR software applications use silhouette extraction and are sensitive to closely located objects.
  • Faster when compared to low-end document scanners.


  • While speed was once the biggest benefit of OMR readers, high-end document scanners such as the Canon DR-X10C have recently caught up to the speed of OMR readers for a similar price. Hence, speed is not always a benefit of OMR readers.
  • OMR readers are still considerably more expensive than a document scanner / software solution.
  • OMR readers can not record handwritten (ICR) or typed data (OCR).
  • OMR reader forms are not as customizable as software forms.
  • You can not easily print your own customized forms as the bubbles may not always line up with the timing tracks and columns. Usually requires you to purchase OMR forms.
  • You do not get a digitized copy of the form.
  • Can not automatically de-skew forms. Forms must be fed in straight.
  • Can not read pen marks without an ink reader or paying more money for support that is built-in.
  • Can not read barcodes without adding a barcode adaptor or paying more money for one that is built-in.

Best suited for:

  • Large scale OMR projects where you do not want to sort through unrecognized pages.
  • People who want high density mark forms.
  • People who already have an existing OMR reader and do not want to re-train staff to use OMR software.

OMR Software

Software based OMR requires an image scanner to work. That is, OMR software extracts mark data from computer images such as TIFF files. An image scanner is generally a flatbed scanner or document scanner. Some OMR software applications can also read data from images taken by digital cameras and fax machines. Please note that the features and implementation of OMR software applications vary greatly, you will also need to compare these when selecting an OMR software application.


  • Forms are customizable and interchangeable when scanning.
  • Image scanners can be used for more than just OMR scanning.
  • OMR software forms do not need to be as exact in alignment as OMR reader forms.
  • Can optionally read barcodes, handwritten information (ICR) and typed information (OCR).
  • Allows you to keep a digitized copy of the form.
  • Cheaper than OMR readers.
  • Can optionally automatically de-skew. Forms can be automatically rotated to make the images straight.
  • Can read blue pen and pencil easily.
  • Can read any barcode type the OMR software supports.
  • Better automation with automatic ID generation / reconciliation and form personalization.


  • Cheaper document scanners can only hold small amounts of paper (between 50-100 pages)
  • Cheaper document scanners have low duty cycles (around 3000 pages per day)
  • Can not put bubbles as close together as OMR reader forms.
  • Can not physically sort unrecognized documents.

Best suited for:

  • Everyone except the cases stated above.


OMR software has consumed a lot of the OMR hardware market in the last decade because of its flexibility and power. However, a market still exists for OMR readers and will continue to do so until low-end document scanners catch up to the speed of the average OMR reader. It will also exist until someone develops a way to automatically sort forms that are unrecognized. The best advice if you are looking at OMR readers is to determine if you are one of the people who it is best suited to. Also, compare prices of OMR readers for the number of forms you want to process versus the cost of one or more document scanners that have an appropriate speed and duty cycle combined with a decent OMR software system.


Source by Roland Quast

The Effects of Information Technology on Management


In today's business climate, technology is advancing more rapidly than many organizations can keep up with. Frequently, a number of the larger corporations, and even small to medium-sized businesses as well, now hire technology consultants and highly educated technical staff to keep their organizations competitive and up to date with the latest technological changes and improved software and equipment that can make their businesses more efficient and productive. However, the advantages for these businesses that do stay informed and up to date with the latest technological changes is that they are able to increase revenues and profits at a faster pace and promulgate the overall success of the company.

Technology is quickly becoming a key factor in any type of business, and the latest technological innovations are what are leading to not only increased sales and exposure, but also less costly methods of marketing and advertising and greatly increased productivity. In manufacturing, many processes that were once performed manually or machines that were operated by manpower are now being operated remotely and run by automated processes. With decreased opportunities for employment in manufacturing and less skilled trades, many workers are gaining an education and expanding their own personal skills to accommodate a changing business environment.

In administrative functions, computers have offered the benefits of readily accessible databases of information and streamlined processes as well. Virtual offices and even telephone answering systems that operate as robotic receptionists have decreased the need for many positions here as well and offered businesses a more cost-effective approach to completing simpler office tasks. In terms of sales, the internet has helped open the doors for increased globalization and the ability to increase profits by reaching more people at one time. As a result, telemarketing and door to door sales calls have become not only unwelcomed by the general public, but also an outdated means of selling goods and services.

While the overall benefit to the end consumer is lower prices, businesses still reap the rewards of these decreased costs of operation and also greater efficiency and organization. For management, the increased reliance on information technology creates a number of issues. In terms of human resources, today's human resources managers are searching for employees that are well trained with computers and know how to operate the latest technological equipment. In addition, a number of today's top firms are hiring employees that telecommute or work from a remote location, and managers are now frequently managing teams from in front of a computer.

Another aspect of increased information technology that affects today's management is security. Hacking, phishing, and other online security threats can create real issues for any type of business, but today's managers have to be prepared to deal with these kinds of threats, teach the importance of security to employees, and know how to react when security has been breached.


Source by Christopher D. West

Dell Corporation's Influence on Sun Microsystems


When Dell came into the market it was a high threat of substitute products or service for Sun Microsystems. Dell on the other hand had a low threat because not many other companies came out with customizable personal computers. It was easy for Dell to enter the market because it was one of the first companies to provide those products. So there was a high threat of new entrants, but now that many companies are providing customizable computers it will be more difficult for new companies to enter the market. There is a high rivalry among existing competitors in the computer market because you can only sell so many computers. Each company is after the same customer and they need to compete to get the customer's attention.

I think that Dell had a similar impact on other computer vendors in the same server market because Dell was on of the first to come up with customizable computers so all the other vendors were hit just as hard as Sun Microsystems. Sun's supply chain now very closely mirror's that of Dell Computers. Both are shorter. I think it is wise to mimic a competitor relatively closely, at least in the computer field. If both companies have a shorter supply chain and can lower costs than in the eyes of the consumer quality and price are the elements being compared. This makes the competitiveness and playing field fairer. Blockbuster is now doing the same with Netflix. A customer is able to get a movie sent to the house and keep if for as long as they want with no late fees. The convenience appeals to people. Customers feel less rushed and are not throwing away hard earned money on late fees. Sun's collection of software can be an integrated interface. The collection integrates information, provides one suite of applications, and cuts the supply chain shorter. Organizations have to be very organized in the process of getting different vendors to talk to each other. By knowing which vendors do the best work they can order from specific vendors and keep the chain running smoothly.

Sun now does customizable personal computers. They have increased efficiency in the supply chain so that the product is delivered to customers within the promised time 95 percent of the time. This greatly helps with competitive advantage because it is very difficult for companies to guarantee a delivery time. The manufacturers tap into Sun's order-processing system and generate a customer invoice and shipping order for the customer. They also assemble, configure, and test your system before sending it directly to you. The delivery time has made the company become much more efficient. This created an information partnership with its supplier manufacturers.

Customer relationship management uses information about customers to gain insights into their needs, wants, and behaviors in order to serve them better. The Principal's efforts are a great example because it gathers information such as age, marital status and family status, salary, and benefits about their customers. This information helps the company to advice customers on how to control their money. Information technology within Principal is both top and bottom line. The IT support fast turnaround times for transactions and is used to find information about customers. So for top line to reach new customers and offer new products that will relate those customers, and bottom like to optimize manufacturing processes and successfully process almost 1 million online transactions per day. Principal's focus is to grow and increase market reach, product and service offerings, and expand market share. Principal's strategy would be focus because it does so much research on its customers to offer products and services to a particular market segment. Principal focuses on customers in need of financial advice mostly for retirement and the specific advice to fit those customers.

Principal could use an ERP system just for software to organize and make their award wining information technology more efficient. I think as service offerings become more and more popular, there might be a need for a service version of ERP so the companies that do not have physical products can still gain from resource planning. If I was considering the financial services needs of a customer, I would want to know job history, real estate, education after college, driver history, and general interests.


Source by Gillian Smyth

Software Testing Certifications – How to Choose Which One to Take


As a software test professional, you may be considering adding a test certification to your qualifications. CSTP, CTM, CSTE, CMST, ISEB, ISTQB – there are many certifications available and it can become confusing to understand which one is best for you. This article will explain what to look out for when deciding which software testing certification you will take.

Firstly, lets take a look at some of the certification acronyms. CSTP (Certified Software Test Professional) and CTM (Certified Test Manager) are both certifications offered by the International Institute for Software Testing (IIST), which is based in the US CSTE (Certified Software Tester) and CMST (Certified Manager of Software Testing) are offered by the QAI institute, also based in the US The ISEB (Information System Exam Board) offers a number of IT related certifications, including software testing and is associated with the British Computer Society. ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) offers the certification "ISTQB Certified Tester" over a number of levels.

The first question to ask is if the certification offer different levels ?. Different levels can continue to build your certification as your career progresses. A career in testing generally starts at the test analyst level, then progresses to senior tester, test lead and then test manager. A certification program that offers certifications aimed at different levels starting from a basic or foundation level to advanced and test manager levels, may be more useful than one that only provides a single certification level.

Find out if the certification is more widely known and available only in certain countries. The Certified Software Test Professional (CSTP) qualification is a US based qualification and as such is only available in the US, whereas the ISTQB certification is available internationally and has local representation in many countries.

Does the certification require attending training courses or can they be completed online or by self study? Attending training courses in person offers the benefits of completing a course in a certain time period and having access to a qualified instructor, to listen to their experience and to be able to ask questions. Training courses can be expensive though and some people will prefer an option where they are not required to attend a training course but can complete the course in their own time by self study.

Does the testing qualification require work experience? The CSTP certification has a requirement that the applicant has worked in a test related role for at least one year. While this is OK for those already working IT and in testing, if you are looking to break into the field, this will not be a suitable certification to study for.

Does the certification qualification count towards earning other testing certifications or other qualifications ?. For example, holders of the ISTQB certification will gain credit towards the CSTP qualification. The foundation level of the ISEB certification is equivalent to the ISTQB foundation level. Other certifications can offer credit against university or college degrees.

Does the certification expire? If the certification expires you will need to take the time and expense to study and take the exam again after some time. The CSTP certification is valid for three years and after that, testers need to qualify again to keep their certification.

Is a testing qualification mentioned in the job advertisements in your local area? Take a look at what qualifications are mentioned and if they are desirable, preferred or required. This can vary by country, for example in the UK many job advertisement will mention the requirement for a tester to be ISEB qualified.


Source by Martin Gessner

What Is The Difference Between ERP And Enterprise System?


Enterprise system and Enterprise Resource Planning System terms are similar but there is difference between an enterprise system and an ERP system. An ES or enterprise system is a large scale system which includes packages like ERP and CRM. ERP is a subset of Enterprise System or it can be said that ES is a superset of ERP. It contains a variety of solutions. ES contains applications and packaged solutions which can be directly used in an enterprise. On the other hand ERP system is the automation of the business processes and the solutions are in the form of modules which are designed according to the client's requirements.

The functions are customized according to the client's business environment. Enterprise system does not include architecture of other solutions whereas an ERP implementation automates systems using technical aspects. ERP system includes architectures and databases and is client server architecture. The system is server based therefore the consultant needs to be aware of the technical aspect too.

Another difference between an ES and an ERP system is that the ERP is aimed at improving the functionalities of the organization whereas the ES helps to improve the overall maintenance and accuracy. It provides for better solutions and aids in decision making. ES is difficult to implement compared to Enterprise resource planning and even the timeframe needed for implementation maybe more. The overall impact is high but so are the risks involved. If the ES is not implemented in the right manner, it can cause business failure and if implemented properly it can increase the efficiency and profits of the business organization. It is normally required when there is a big drawback in the current procedures and methodologies in the organization and need to be corrected. The company going in for enterprise system needs to be careful while choosing the software and the vendors due to the risk of failure involved.

The difference between an enterprise system and an ERP system is that ERP is mostly used for medium scale companies to big companies and ES is restricted to the big companies. There are many complex functions involved in big companies which can not be provided solutions for alone by ERP. The role of ERP is restricted when compared to enterprise system because it does not include customer relationship or vendor management.

These applications are needed when the business process is complex and on a big scale. Therefore bigger organizations need to go with ES instead of enterprise resource planning alone. ERP is also an important system to streamline the internal processes but it does not provide for taking care of the external processes. Enterprise system takes care of the end to end business process of organization since it involves other applications also like SCM and CRM. There is quite a lot of difference between an enterprise system and an ERP and it depends on the company whether it wants to go with an ES to streamline the entire process starting from supplying, production and customer or whether he wants to go with an ERP system to streamline the internal process.


Source by Dr Andrew Napier